Cristóbal Colón; Italian: Cristoforo Colombo), 1450/1451 Fall - May 20, 1506), explorers, colonizers, navigators, born in the medieval Republic of Genoa (now northwest of Italy) unit). At that time the background was the rise of Western imperialism, the European kingdom began to economic competition, have established trade routes and colonies to expand wealth. Columbus' s westward voyage to the East Indian Islands is supported by the Spanish royal family.
In Columbus's first voyage in 1492, he landed in a place called "San Salvador" in the Bahamas, not the planned Japanese. In the next three voyages, Columbus arrived in the Greater Antilles, the small Antilles, the Caribbean coast of Venezuela, and Central America, and announced that they are the territory of the Spanish Empire.
Although Columbus was not the first European explorer to reach the Americas (the first European explorer to the Americas was Leif Eriksson), Columbus's sailing took the first contact between Europe and the Americas, and Opened up a few centuries later European adventure and colonial overseas territory of the great era. These have an immeasurable impact on the historical development of the modern Western world.
He pioneered a new era of development and colonization in the New World. At that time the European population is expanding, with this discovery, the Europeans have to settle two new continents, there will be able to make the European economy to change the mineral resources and raw materials.
This discovery led to the destruction of American Indian civilization. From a long-term point of view, also caused the emergence of some new countries in the Western Hemisphere. These countries are distinct from the various Indian tribes that have settled in the area, and they have greatly influenced the countries of the Old Continent. He moved the route of overseas trade from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coast. Since then, the West has finally come out of the darkness of the Middle Ages, began to rise in the irresistible trend in the world, and in the next few centuries, the achievements of maritime dominance. A new industrial civilization to become the mainstream of world economic development.
Columbus in order to find China and India, inadvertently reached the Americas, which in the world won the "Columbus found the new continent" honor. But there are a few scholars who are not superstitious traditional view, they through careful study and research, that as early as 20,000 years ago, living in our country in northern China's ancestors, through the frozen Bering Strait, arrived in the Americas.
Religion (religious expansionism or fanaticism, etc.) is an important factor contributing to the expansion of Europe, including Spain, but wherever it is not as strong as the Iberian peninsula. This is because the Iberian peninsula since the beginning of the year 711 began to be under the rule of Islam under the Arabs, the European forces were rushed to the peninsula northwest corner, the Spanish and the Portuguese long-term with the Muslim Jihad.
For the rest of Europe, the threat of Muslims is remote and misty, and their participation in the Crusades is only by the moment of excitement, impulse or other reasons, and for the Iberians, the Muslim threat is real, everywhere It is not only religious obligation, but also patriotic needs, Muslims are their own traditional eternal enemies.
In the war of the Arabs, like the Portuguese, Queen Isabella was encouraged and promoted by this strong religious belief (to expand the Christian power, etc.), not only to destroy the Arabs in the Iberian forces, but also Push the war into the enemy's territory in North Africa. In 1482, Isabella began to crusade against the Arabs in the last stronghold of the Iberian Peninsula, and a village moved forward in a village until the final victory in 1492.
After the victory, the Spaniards crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, occupying the city of Melanesia. After the reunification of Spanish territory, Queen Isabella put the Spanish religious reunification on the agenda. In 1492, she issued an order requiring all Jews in Spain to accept Catholicism or to leave Spain. At that time, 165,000 Jewish pagans were forced to leave Spain. During the stay of the Jews in Spain, he made some contribution to the prosperity of Spain. Some vertical and horizontal financial industry, while others hold important administrative duties, some people are skilled doctors. The departure of the Jews was a major loss in Spain.
It was not until the twentieth century that Spain was aware of this erroneous practice and managed to correct it. The government has promulgated laws to encourage foreign Jews to return to Spain, but to return to the very few. Many Spanish Jews are still scattered in southern Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Israel and the United States and other places. Although they have been away from Spain for five centuries, they still speak fluent Spanish in their own homes; 10 years later, Isabella has issued a similar order to the Muslims who left Castile. In the process of expansion, when more Muslims were found to be wiped out, and more pagans were to be rescued from blind worship, like the Portuguese, the Spanish crusade moved forward and out of control. At this time from the sea to carry out this activity into a need, and open up a new route will coincide with this.
And the Portuguese to find and contact Christian elders John King is different, the Spaniards want to contact the East Mongolian Khan and other pagans, side of the Muslims. Columbus Western Airlines with the Spanish monarch to rule China's Mongolian Khan's national book.
There are important reasons for tempting the Spaniards to go abroad. As a result of the struggle against Portugal in Africa, such as along the coast of the continent in the south of the Madeira, Canary, Cape Verde and Azores and other four major islands, Spain only made the Canary Islands. Thus, the sea along the continent to the east was monopolized by the Portuguese, and at the same time the road leading to the east by the land was also blocked by the Muslims, and thus received tremendous pressure. In order to expand the territory, in order to compete with Portugal for the colonial world of the East, Spain decided to open up a way to the East. At that time, the Westerners had begun to agree that the earth was the concept of a sphere that the Atlantic Ocean had been able to reach the Indian continent (including China, Japan and other places) where Marco Polo had arrived by land. In 1492, the agreement reached between Columbus and Isabella stipulated that he should lead an expedition "to discover and acquire the islands and continents of the ocean". In addition, Queen Isabella supports Columbus voyage, there is a purpose, is the joint "great expression of the goodwill of Christians," "sweat", attack the Middle East and North Africa Muslims, and take these places.
Gold, spices, jewels and gems are another important driver of the advent of the Spaniards and Columbus overseas. As the "Marco Polo Travels" on China and Japan's wealth of myth in Europe at that time was widely circulated, provoking the infinite reverie of Europeans. One of the stories about Japan said, "The lord of the island (Japan) has a huge palace, which is covered with pure gold, and all the floors of the palace and the floors of many halls are laid in gold. , The thickness of the two fingers. The window is also loaded with gold. "About China's Quanzhou port, where there are as many merchants," more than the rest of the world's total. " "In this port unloading pepper ships, one hundred years a year, into the other spices are not inside."
Because in 1453 Turkey destroyed the Byzantine, to the end of the 15th century, Spain began to expand abroad, Turkey has dominated the East Mediterranean, control of the traditional East and West business road. So Spain hopes to open up a way to avoid the Turkish, Arab countries, but also around the scope of the Portuguese forces of the East's new route, direct access to the East gold, spices, treasures, valuables and a variety of goods.
At the end of the 15th century, Spain has formed a monarchy of the autocratic system of the new unified central state of the kingdom of the formation of the Kingdom of Spain, can focus on and mobilize human, material and financial resources for voyage exploration. At the time of the Spanish government, Isabella has a considerable voice and decision-making power, which are later opened for a new route to Western Airlines found that the great relationship between the Americas.